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lULEN COUNIV PUBLIC IIBBARY 



3 1833 03334 8043 



(Gc 975.702 G76s 
Steadman, Mae 
A history of Graniteville 



Allen County Public Librar>' 

900 Webster Street 

PC Box 2270 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 



A HISTORY OF GRANITEVILLE 

by 

Mrs. Mae Steadman 

I can't think of a better introduction for my remarks today 
than from the first sentence in "Reflections of Grani tevi lie" by 
Sharon and Sue McLaughlin published at the time of the 
Bicentennial on Graniteville in 1976. Quote: 

"There is a beginning for every thing "--and as you read 
in the 'Journal,' the first inhabitants of Granitiville 
were the Wes to Indians, and from them came the name 
Horse Creek. " 

America itself was young--only 69 years old, when 

Graniteville was born. Grani teville ' s growth has kept pace and 
adjusted well to all the changing facets of the Nation. 
Especially the citizens who grew up in Graniteville are proud of 
our town. We believe it is still standing tall and becoming what 
its founder intended it to be : a well-educated people, a 
prosperous town, recognized for a superb product, not only in 
America, but internationally as well! 

We can't think of Graniteville without thinking of William 
Gregg, for it is to William Gregg that the Graniteville of today 
owes its beginning. Graniteville is listed in the National 
Registry of Historic Places, and more and more people are becoming 
aware of Graniteville. Gregg started out in business in 
Columbia, South Carolina, as a silversmith and jeweler, and it is 
said he never took off his workman's apron until he was worth 
$50,000. Actually, Gregg closed his business in Columbia because 
of ill health. 



P3-70 1 n^ I.' 



Gregg married Marinah Jones of Ridge Spring, and it was her 
brother, General James Jones, who built a mill in Vaucluse in 
which William Gregg invested in in 1836, and his career as a 
manufacturer commenced. Having invested heavily in Vaucluse, he 
kept a close watch over his investment, and it was here that he 
began plans for a larger mill with adequate housing for its 
employees . One thing he had to have for a larger operation was 

wa te r . 

Dr. W. W. Wallace, in his book on Granitevi lie , said Gregg 
had determined as early as 1843 to build a great cotton mill and 
had selected his location. His experience at Vaucluse had 
revealed to him advantages of Horse Creek Valley. Gregg planned 
to convert this spot, so little suited to agriculture, from 
extreme poverty to wealth. In fact, the first farm families 
called the place "Hard Scrabble" which gives us an idea of 
conditions there. That wasn't the only reason Gregg chose this 
place. Immediately at hand were beds of granite, forests of long 
leaf pine (supplying one of the world's finest building 
materials), water, and a canal already in use. 

From those who came to help in construction, Mr. Gregg chose 
families he felt would make desirable workers and citizens for 
his model community. With all this construction, Graniteville 
became a reality in 1845. Determined to put the comfort of his 
people first; two churches, an academy, and homes were completed 
before the mill was built. Mr. Gregg did not sacrifice beauty 
for haste and economy. Evidence of this still exists in the 
Gothic architecture found on what was then called "Blue Row." 
Blue Row has been photographed and written about so much that it 

Page 2 of 14 



has become almost synonymous with Grani teville. The quaint, 
Gothic-style architecture of the cottages and St. John United 
Methodist Church gives it an air of story-book charm, unique to 
this town. At one time all the houses on the street were washed 
in a blue wash, hence the name. The original cost of each house 
was $400. They were rented to employees only, and maintenance 
was done by the company. Upon the advent of electricity, the 
houses were wired and electricity furnished at no cost. 

Canal Street is the oldest street in town, named because of 
the canal which is older than the town. In the words of the 
McLaughlin sisters, "It stretched like a liquid ribbon for almost 
a mile, ornamented in spring by azaleas, and in summer by crape 
myrtle blossoms. Although it is a very old and beautiful part of 

town, the canal is most vital to the manufacturing process of the 
mills. " 

Certainly Mr. Gregg set out to care for the whole person, so 

he must have been a psychologist as well as a manufacturer. 

Getting back to the houses--! must tell you that in front of 

the houses there were wells--two or three houses using one 

well--and the women of the community used the wells for social 

contact. They were probably too busy to visit unless a neighbor 

needed help. 

I'm told that at the advent of bathrooms, many of the houses 

were equipped with them even before many people in cities were 

able to afford them. 

Again I'd like to go to Dr. Wallace's account of 

Graniteville. "Graniteville was instantly recognized as an 

American plant and certainly the leading textile mill in the 

Page 3 of 14 



south. Visitors from both North and South describe with 
admiration in newspapers and magazines the wonders, the most 
modern equipment, housed in the most substantial granite 
building, with its yard blooming with lovely flowers, surrounded 
by one of the world's model industrial villages, all set down 
beside a clear stream in the midst of the vast forest of pines, 
in an out of the way corner of the state distrusting such 
enterprises--an enterprise more over not for profit only, but 
calling to enlightenment and prosperity one of the most neglected 
populations in the country." 

Gregg himself described his town in a letter to Freeman Hunt 
dated October 22, 1849. "The village covers about 150 acres of 
ground, contains two handsome Gothic churches, an academy, hotel, 
10 or 12 stores and about 100 cottages belonging to the company 
and occupied by persons in their services. The houses varied in 
size from 3 to 9 rooms each, nearly all built after the Gothic 
Cottage order. The property cost $300,000. 

We have a large class of white people in South Carolina who 
are not slave holders and who work for a livelihood." 

Gregg personally interviewed each worker for he felt that 
the maintenance of a moral character was necessary for a model 
village. The use of alcohol was not permitted in the village and 
to this day is not allowed to be sold — however, in adjoining 
Madison, it was a different story. 

There is a tale told by the father of Miss Clara Harrigal 
that he was with Gregg as they drove towards Grani tevi lie , when a 
man of not too good repute slipped out of the woods with a jug. 
"What's in that jug?" demanded Mr. Gregg. "Molasses," said the 

Page 4 of 14 



culprit, but circumstances spoke louder than words, and Gregg 
flooded the road with whiskey as he broke the jug over his buggy 
wheel. "Now, how much did that molasses costs?" Gregg inquired, 
and handed the man the amount with the warning that the next time 
he might get the buggy whip instead of the money. Mr. X (let us 
call him for his descendants are excellent people), was the 
expert English machinist, and was the only man in the village 
whose lapses into liquor Mr. Gregg would tolerate. After his 
periodic sprees, Mr. X would weep out his repentance to Mr. Gregg 
and promise never to do it again, and so useful was he that the 
whiskey-hating president would each time accept the pledge and 
keep him on his job. It was a boy in this same family who was so 
rebellious about going to school that his parents confessed their 
helplessness and complained to Mr, Gregg against having to pay 
the daily 5 cents for his absence. (I'll tell you about this 
later) When Mr. Gregg asked if they were willing for his getting 
the boy to go to school, they consented and the president applied 
a good stiff dose of hickory stick and had no more trouble. 

I mentioned the Graniteville Academy earlier. It was one of 
Gregg's pride and joys. It was built in keeping with the Gothic 
style. At first, the curriculum only went through the 6th grade. 
Later grades 7 through 10 were added. The school provided a 
9-month course-October- July ; the school day beginning at 8:30 
a.m. and lasting until 4:30 p.m., with a 2-hour lunch break so 
pupils not only could have their lunches, but could carry hot 
lunches to the mill. 

The school had the first successful compulsory attendance 
rule that worked. Parents were required to keep their children 

Page 5 of 14 



under 12 in school. When they didn't, they were fined 5 cents a 
day if a child did not attend school. Mr. Gregg would go so far 
as to tell the offending parent his job was in jeopardy if a 
child did not attend school. It was the first school in the 
South, and perhaps in the nation, to furnish free textbooks to 
the pupils. If a pupil was sent to the office, it meant the mill 
office and not to the superintendent's office. Mr. Gregg visited 
the school daily and the children loved him although he was very 
strict with the children. In summer when the peaches in his 
orchard on Kalmia Hill were ripe, he would bring tubs of them and 
set them down in the school yard for the children to help 
themselves . 

The first high school class graduated in 1899. In 1922, the 
academy closed and the pupils marched to the new Leavelle 
McCampbell School that the company had built. 

My father attended the academy, but my mother attended a 
private school run by Mrs. Anna Hard. After her school was 
closed, she taught at the academy. I was in her class in the 5th 
grade. 

Today, what remains of the Academy building is used by 
Senior Citizens as a leisure Club. 

From the beginning, school has been a point of pride and one 
of the most unifying elements in Graniteville . 

Implanting the belief in the original settlers that 
education was the common denominator for growth and achievement, 
Mr. Gregg provided and supported a school which denied no one, no 
matter how poor, the right to go to school. I guess the good 
example set with our forefathers was handed down in the 



Page 6 of 14 



Graniteville Schools for attendance has always been good. I know 
that while I was principal of Byrd School, I had a habit, if a 
child's name appeared in the absentee list in the a.m., of 
calling to find out what was wrong. Only occasionally did I find 
a child not at school because of having overslept if both parents 
were working. Almost always, they'd come to school, though 
tardy. Also, from personal experience, I found the parents in 
Graniteville most cooperative, who wanted the very best for their 
children. Long before teachers' aids were in schools in Aiken 
County mothers volunteered to help. 

Byrd School library was started by parents who helped to 
raise money for books and who gave of their time to man the 
library until the county furnished us a librarian. 

CIVIL WAR 

Taken from "Reflections" 

Grantiville was only 15 years old when South Carolina 
seceeded from the Union. Company F, of the 7th Regiment of South 
Carolina Volunteers was composed entirely of Graniteville men and 
boys . 

Because Graniteville was furnishing material for Southern 
military purposes. General Sherman ordered the mills destroyed, 
along with a paper mill in the valley. General Joe Wheeler at 
Aiken, held Sherman's army away from Graniteville and the 
destruction of the mill. 

During this time food was scarce, and Graniteville Company 
was besieged by beggars in person and by mail. While all 
possible help was given to those who came, there had to be a 

Page 7 of 1 4 



limit. Mr. Gregg bartered cloth for food for his employees and 
they fared better than most. In trying to care for his own 
people first, he received merciless criticism from the press and 
even from the pulpit because he had turned many away. Down 
through the ages, Graniteville has contributed not only men and 
money, but the essentials for uniforms, tents, and other textile 
requirements for military use. 

Mules were a necessity in Graniteville. They transported 
raw cotton from farms to the mill, they hauled cotton bales to 
the mill; then moved the oznaburg material from the mill to the 
nearest shipping point. Wagons pulled by mules were first school 
buses and they carried the high school children back and forth to 
Vaucluse. This was possibly a first. 

Mules were even used in the first sanitation system: behind 
the mules were carts loaded with large barrels facetiously 
nicknamed "honey-buckets" because of the odor of their contents. 
These honey-bucket carts ran with regularity throughout 
Graniteville and emptied near where Byrd School is now. However 
crude it may seem to us now it was one of the first organized 
collection systems in the country. 

NO STRIKES OR UNIONS 
There has never been a strike in Granitevile. Probably the 
reason being that the people feel that they are being treated 
fairly, or if not, they can settle their own differences. Maybe 
William Gregg was partly responsible when he hired the right 
people to live in his Graniteville. One incident told in Dr. 
Wallace's book which showed that the workers could settle their 

Paae 8 of 14 



own differences took place when a Mr. Guerry was Superintendent 
at Graniteville. He fired a very competent and much loved and 
respected boss of one of the rooms. All the people working under 
this man immediately walked out, causing the entire mill to be 
shut down. Down it stayed until Mr. Guerry invited this man 
back. Then the entire working force returned. It was this same 
Mr. Guerry who took all the stored records of Graniteville 
Company to the ballfield and made a bonfire of them. I might add 
Mr. Guerry remained in Graniteville 13 monthsl 

Another incident showing the workers could handle their own 
problems took place in Vaucluse when the Union sent workers there 
to try to organize a Union of the workers. The majority of the 
workers were so incensed wanting to run the organizers out of 
town that the National Guard was ordered in to prevent trouble. 
Needless to say, no union was organized and no strike occurred. 

There are certain landmarks in Graniteville that I need to 
tell you about or at least mention. They are: 

The two first churches: First Baptist which burned and 

has been rebuilt twice. 
St. John United Methodist Church. 

The Graniteville Cementery 

Company Farm 

Artesian Well 

Hickman Mill 

Medical Center 

The Graniteville Bell 

Speaking of St. John Methodist Church in Grani tevi lle--there 
was an article on this church in the Aiken Standard last year 
that you probably read, where I was baptized as an infant (I 
still have my Cradle Roll Certificate), attended Sunday School 
and Church there, and in which I was married. I distinctly 
remember when the beautiful beams that had been hidden for years 



Page 9 of 14 



by a false ceiling were discovered when Babe Yaun and his father 
went up in the attic to do some work. If you haven't seen the 
interior of this church, please attend a service there. It was 
designed by the famous Charleston Architect, Edward Brickell 
White. 

While I was writing the History of St. John's in Aiken, I 
also did some research on St. John (doesn't have 's like ours) 
because at one time these two churches were on the same charge, 
with St. John in Graniteville being the larger and mother church. 

THE GRANITEVILLE CEMETERY 
The Graniteville Cemetery was begun about 1855 with Mr. 
Gregg directing much of the planning and planting of trees and 
shrubs. A well and later a pump was provided to furnish water 
for flowers and shrubbery. It was a place of serenity and 
beauty. 

The gazebo in this cemetery is one of Graniteville ' s oldest 
landmarks and was used to store coffins when it was too rainy for 
burial. 

There are many legends and stories connected with this 
cemetery. Probably one of the oldest and best known is in the 
oldest section of the cemetery — an inscription on a little tomb 
reads "The Little Boy"--1855. The legend is told of a little boy 
traveling alone on a train who became ill and was taken off the 
train at Graniteville and cared for by the good women of 
Graniteville. His high fever made him too sick to tell his name 
or where he was going. When he died in October 1855, the good 
women who had collected scraps of satin and silks from Christmas 

Page 10 of 14 



wrappings, lined a coffin made by the menfolk, gave him a 
Christian burial in their cemetery and from their nickels and 
dimes bought a simple little tombstone. 

I often wondered from where the flowers that are still 
placed on the little grave were coming and recently I found out. 
They are being removed from other graves. At least someone still 
cares . 

THE COMPANY FARM 

After you turn off Breezy Hill Road going to the exit to 
1-20, you will pass evidence of Gregg's model company farm where 
cotton was grown for the mill, and vegetables for the employees, 
as well as various fruits and pecans trees. Also, there was a 
Smithy Shop and Stables for the horses. 

There were 8 houses there for the farm families and I'm 
told, some of the old barns still standing contain relics that 
are fast deteriorating. 

ARTESIAN WELL 

We must not leave out the Artesian Well which was drilled 
about 1900, according to Monroe Hamilton, a long-time resident of 
Graniteville and now deceased, by a man known as "Klondike." It 
is said he drilled the well using a steam engine for power. It 
was always a nice place to stop to get a cool, sweet drink of 
water on the way home from school or work on a hot day. 

It was restored and enclosed inside a granite structure in 
1973 to retain its historical value and to provide a host of fond 
memories to many who live in this area. 



Page 11 of 14 



THE HICKMAN HALL 

The Hickman Hall was the town's recreational center and now 
the Employment Center. It had bowling lanes, a swimming pool, 
the town Library on the first floor and the top floor was used 
for dances and parties. I'm sure I must have read every book in 
the library. My aunt who was librarian lived with us, and many 
times she found me asleep between the stacks exhausted. 

In the summer, Gregg Park was the recreation center until 
Gregg Civic Center took over the old Aiken Outing Club. In the 
summers, there were Community Watermelon picnics, ice cream 
get-togethers, band concerts, walks to Flat Rock, etc. --Gregg 
brought in lecturers for culture. 

In W. E. Woodward's book, "The Way Our People 
Lived" — Woodward grew up in Grani tevi lie-- , he said people had 
watermelon every day for a 20-pound melon sold for 5 cents. 

Land cost about $3.00 an acre. From this same book, I 
learned about the first bicycle in Graniteville in 1887 and how 
every one came out to see Dick Ross learning to ride his high 
front wheel bicycle. 

GRANITEVILLE MEDICAL CENTER 
Graniteville, as early as 1849, had a medical plan Mr. 
Gregg organized a sick fund to which each family made a trifling 
contribution, and from which the doctors fees were paid. (The 
conception of such a medical plan, like so many of Gregg's ideas, 
was way ahead of other manufacturers of the day.) 



Page 12 of 14 



One of the earliest medical care centers was in St. Paul's 
Episcopal Parrish House. With the equipment in the basement, an 
operating table and medical suppplies, minor surgery could be 
performed. A trained nurse and an aid carried on valuable 
medical services in the community. 

Today, Graniteville has a medical facility built by 
Graniteville Company that is a credit to the town. 

THE GRANITEVILLE BELL 

Not many of the workers owned an alarm clock--I suppose they 
really didn't need one. The original Granite Mill had 2 towers, 
and in one hung a huge bell. (It's still there.) 

The bell was rung to awaken people, to signal the time to 
report to work, the time to go to lunch and return, and the time 
to quit in the evening. It was also used for special occasions, 
ringing in the New Year, the end of wars, as a fire alarm, and 
upon request it tolled the age of an esteemed citizen at death. 
In other words, it was the communication system for the community 
in its early years. 

Carrying out Gregg's passion for educating youth, in 1941 
the Graniteville Company established the Gregg Foundation which 
began awarding scholarships to worthy students whose parents live 
in Graniteville or whose parents work for the Graniteville 
Company. Since that time, from 2 to 22 scholarships have been 
awarded each year. 

In addition to their normal scholarship program, 
Graniteville Company made an outstanding contribution to the 
academic progress of the community and the State of South 

Page 13 of 14 



Carolina by a gift to furnish the rare-book section in the 
library at the University of South Carolina in Columbia to be 
known as the Graniteville Room. 

Though proud of its past, Grani tevi lie ' s face is turned 
toward the future. The houses in Graniteville are now owned by 
individuals, many are not kept up as they were when the company 
owned them. Since Mr. Posner took over the Company there is no 
longer a police force, but I understand there has been and are 
still being improvements. Many descendants of the original 
settlers are still living in Graniteville, and I'm sure they 
won't allow anything bad to happen to their town if they can 
prevent it. 

Mrs. Mae Steadman 



Page 14 of 14 



■a 




HARDSCRABBLE 

Hardscrabble nas a very siall neighborhood of fariers prior to 1845 when Killiai Gregg chose the, place to build his till. . 

One of the fex hoies in Hardscrabble in 1845 was occupied by an old couple Mhose naie has long been forgotten. It Mas a log 
cabin with a wooden and lud chiiney. The cabin was built under a poplar tree that stood at the north end of "Blue Row" later 
knoKn as Eregg Street. 

The couple, according to legend, sold their land to Milliai Gregg when the 5000 acre tract was acquired for the lill. 

Note; According to a plat of the original owners of what is now the Piatt property, "Blue Row' was "Gregg Street" first. 

Hany other nicknaies were used out of Gregg's hearing. Soie of these were "Punken Gully", "Skillet ftlley", 'Hocking Bird 
Branch", "Sweet Gui Hollow", and 'Shake Rag'. 

Gregg deteriined as early as 1843 to build a great cotton lill and had selected his location as Horse Creek Valley. It had 
■any advantages - building laterials, fuel, water power, and a railroad only a lile away - then a rare convenience. 

Harch 20, 1843, he and his wife's brother, Jaies Jones, bought for $2500.00 frot John Bausket II, 423A containing Vauduse 
Hill and lost of the subsequent Graniteville Land. Gregg used the southern portion of the land for another and larger lill 
(Graniteville). Nineteen out of thirty-one stockholders were froi Charleston. Capital paid $300,000. 

Gregg planned to convert this property to great wealth and to educate the 'hillers'. There had long been lills at the rapids 
of Horse Creek. These rapids had long been used to saw or grind for the neighborhood. Two of these lills were Glover's Hill 
near the Graniteville Factory and Richard's Hill on Bridge Creek. 

Gregg's son had a letter dated July 9, 1B44, 'Hardscrabble'. The place was lade a Post Office February 4, 184B, with Enock 
B. Presley as Post Master. 

CEHETERY 

a) SUHHER HOUSE 

The suiier house in the ceietery is one of the last landtarks. It was built in 1856 shortly after the ceietery was begun. 
Soaeone had died, and the people not knowing just where to bury the body carried it to the woods on top of the hill. That 
larked the beginning of one of the oldest public ceieteries in the state. The susier house was used for shelter, concerts, 
and leiorial services. 



b) THE LITTLE BOY'S fiRflVF 

Tradition has it that a little boy, too young and too sick to travel, was put off the train here in 1855. He was cared for 
by the proprieter of the hotel until his death. No one ever knew his naie or where he caie froi. 

The people of Graniteville -nickled up- to have a coffin .ade and a to.b stone put on his grave. It can be found in the 
ceietery with "Little Boy 1855" on it. Soie lysterious person has kept flowers on his grave ever since. 

■1 
'7^ 



VAUCLUSE HILL 

The Viuduse Mill Mas originally built several years before the Graniteville 'Old Hill" nas built and is believed to be one 
of the first in the South. 

In 183&, Hilliai Gregg acquired a few shares in the Vaucluse Hill soie liles froi the hoie of his Jones in-laws. He intended 
to enter extensively into the lanufacturing of cotton but ill health prevented his purchasing that establishient when it «as 
sold. 

The granite Mall that is still standing Mas built of granite quarried near by. It Has built in 1832 and noH foris a part of 
the lodern dai. 

A tradition is that there Mas a forier till Mhich Mas burned. This fact is sustained by a deed of April 23, 1831, on Big 
Horse Creek 'on Nhich said tract » grist lill, a cotton factory, and saw tills are erected.* Doubtless the property «as 
deeded back to its original oxners after it Mas burned, and they began the erection of the lill. The corner stone is dated 
1832 and still stands on the foundation of the present lill Mhich Mas erected in 1833. It Mas burned January 3, 1867, and 
Mas rebuilt in 1877. 

When the lill Mas built in 1877, the builders reeoved the two upper stories of the old stone lill and added three stories of 
brick and tMo stories of granite. The tMO stories of granite are thus the oldest structure in South Carolina still used as a 
cotton lill. In the original granite Mheel house Mith about a decade of interiission, the turbines have Mhirled for icre 
than 110 years. The lill began Mith 1520 spindles and 25 loois to spin one-half of its yarn. It Mas operated by 30 Mhites 
and 20 slaves Morking both mooI and cotton. 

Vaucluse Mas settled by French Hugenots in 1830. The settlers gave the town the saie naae as their hojeto^n near Alvon, 
France. (In all probability, that is Mhere the expression that everyone born in Vaucluse has a "knot on his head' caie froi 
- Hugenots). 

The old Vaucluse Hill Bell Mas cast in HidNay, Hass. and has the date 1676 on it. It Mas used is an 'alari bell', ringing at 
5:00 a. I. to awaken the people. At 5:45 a.i. the bell rang out, calling the workers to the till to begin their 12 - hour day 
of toils. Finally at 6:00 a.i. the 'Mork bell" rang, signaling the start of a long day. At noon the bell rang to signal 
that it Mas dinner tiie. At 6:00 p.t. the bell brought the Melcoie end of the day. 



3 



THE BEGINNING OF GRflNITEVILLE SCHOOL 

Hilliai Gregg, the founder of GraniteYille, was what light be called a benevolent despot. 'He acted in all his plans for the 
life of the people of Graniteville, froi a profound sense of social obligation." 

Mhen in 1848 Hr. Gregg was working out the plans for his venture into building the iill at Graniteville, it is certain that 
the teaching of reading, writing, and arithietic to the children was as definitely a part of his prograi as the industrial 
training of the operatives or the profits of the coipany. He took a great interest in school and held it dear to his heart. 

i 
Gregg inaugurated the first coipulsory education systei (although inforial and liiited yet surprisingly effective) in the 

South and perhaps the first in the whole country. This is the way he described it hisself - "AH parents are required to 

keep their children between the ages of sin and twelve at school. ..good teachers, books, etc. are furnished by the coipany 

free of charge.' Usually in his daily visits to the till, he would stop by the school at recess tiie. The children would 

diib over his buggy and he would laugh and play with thei. Very often he would go in and talk to the pupils. And, often he 

would bring ya big tub of peaches froi his fan, set it in the school yard and let the children help theiselves to all the 

peaches they wanted. 

Hr. Gregg not only had his coipulsory school attendance law, but he was his own enforceient officer. If he found a boy 
playing hooky, he would return hii to school, or if the offense were repeated, would take hii to the office for a "licking". 
Several tiies he was known to go to the "ole swiiiing hole" and bring boys back to school. If the children's punishient and 
the lecture given by Gregg did not suffice to secure the attendance of the children, the offending parents were fined by hii 
five cents a day for every day a child stayed away froi school. Not only did he insist on the children of the village going 
to school, but he was anxious for the children in the country near by to benefit also. 

One day Gregg learned that a boy who had often fallen under his displeasure of truancy had sneaked off froi school and gone 
fishing. Gregg lay in wait for hii on the road and as the boy case froi the bushes beside the streai, seized hii, lifted hii 
into the buggy and drove hii to the lill office. The boy got a new punishient instead of the custoiary whipping. He was 
stood on a high bookkeepers desk and left there without a word. The eiployees had been tipped off to ask hii questions as 
they went by. Then Gregg would explain, 'There stands a boy that would rather go fishing than get an education." The little 
fellow grew weary of hearing this and begged to be let down with a proiise he would never run away froi school again. 

The school was known as the Graniteville Acadeiy. It was far superior to those carried on by the state and county 
authorities. It was supported by the coipany and independent of state supervision. While the state schools were open three 
or four lonths in a year, with poorly trained and underpaid teachers, and where children learned only a siattering of any 
subject, the Graniteville Acadeiy had a regular nine lonths course froi October to July. It had teachers who were well 
prepared and occupied a coifortable school house. 

The school, after it had been in operation for a few years, had three teachers, two of thei ladies froi Charleston and the 
third a lan. 

One of the first superintendents of the Graniteville School was Nilliaa Harchant, a very extraordinary lan. He had a passion 
for teaching with a burning passion like that which loves lartyrs and heroes. His desire to iipart knowledge was a living 
flaie in his heart and soul. The punishients he gave his pupils were quick and severe. 

On the walls of the schoolrooi were hung large yellow laps. There were no naies of any kind printed on the United States lap 
- just outlines of every state, all the principal cities, rivers and lakes but no nates. The location of the places was 
learned in reference to their surroundings. 

Occasionally, and always without previous warning, the whole school was taken off its regular routine of studies and the 



(schools conl.) 

attention of all the pupils Mas concentrated for a Mhole week on soie special subject. There was an Arithietic Keek, a 
Spelling Meek, etc. At this tiie every one concentrated on the one subject for that week - without even a glance at any 
other subject. 

Soietiies Kr. Harchant would take the class on a visit to soie special place - laybe a paper lill close by or soie other 
place of interest. After the children returned, they were asked to write a paper about the things they had seen on the trip. 

Our school systei has continued to iiprove each year until now it ranks high in the statei Ke are aware of the fact that the 
early action of Nilliai Gregg is undoubtedly soeewhat responsible for the fine reputation we enjoy today with regard to our 

schools. 

At the tiie Hr. Harchant was the principal of Braniteville Acadejy, firs. Anna Hard had a private school for those children 
whose parents did not want to send thei to 'public' school. 'Public School' were dirty words then. 

Hr. Karchant had goats - Mrs. Hard had ducks. In the afternoons when the children were coiing froi opposite directions froi 
school, they poked fun at each other; Hr. Harchants goats, "baa, baa' and Anna Hard's ducks, 'quack, quack'. 

Later Mrs. Hard gave up her private school to teach in the acadeiy for about sixty years and two or three generations. A 
better teacher never lived. 

Since then there have been lany good and dedicated teachers. 

One portion of the original H-shaped building now stands. It is now used as a club house for senior citizens. Hcwever, the 
top story once used as the first grade rooi and soie of the triangle cloak closets are still there. The stairs where the 
little ones stuibled down to chapel are there, also. 

The original and the part that still stands has the siiple Gothic beauty with its vertical siding, steep-pitched roof, and 
scalloped border that the original buildings and hoies have. 



•5 




SCALE IN MILES 
I 2 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

SAVANNAH DISTRICT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

SAVANNAH, GEORGIA 

FLOOD PLAIN INFORMATION 

AIKEN COUNTY 
SOUTH CAROLINA 



GENERAL 

DECEMBER 1971 



MAP 

DMS 62/122 



PLATE I 



BACKGROUND INFORMATION 



Settlement 

Aiken. County, with an area of 1,097 square miles, was 
formed in 1872 from parts of Orangeburg, Lexington, Edgefield, and 
Barnwell Counties. The county was named in honor of William Aiken, 
builder of the South Carolina Railroad. The early settlers came 
to the area to avoid malaria which, at that time, was prevalent 
on the Atlantic Coast. Aiken County's early economic developrrent 
was centered around agricultural products. The last decade has 
been witness to a rapid population growth as manufacturing has 
increased job opportunities. Continued growth and development of 
the county is expected because of the mild climate, natural 
resources, and expanding transportation routes. 

The Stream and Its Valley 

Horse Creek, with a drainage area of 158 square miles 
at its mouth, joins the Savannah River near the City of Augusta, 
Georgia. The watershed of Horse Creek, which drains a portion of 
the Sand Hill Section of South Carolina, is almost entirely within 
Aiken County. Above Vaucluse, Horse Creek flows in a steep channel 
through woodlands in a narrow valley. In this upper reach, the 
average stream slope is about 40.0 feet per mile; however, below 
Vaucluse the stream slope becomes more gradual. The average 
stream slope of Horse Creek from its headwaters to its mouth is 
22.0 feet per mile. 



The stream reaches of Horse Creek, Sand River, and 
Bridge Creek included in this study are shown on the general rap. 
Horse Creek flows southward from its source at the north-central 



■ , ,„a the southeastern part of Edgefield Co. ty. 
part of Ai>en County and he s ^^ ^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^, , „f 

Horse Creek falls about 66 feet ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,„p, „, 

s-a™ included ,n *- -" ;- ^^.^ „,, , ..,„a,e area of 
about 10.8 feet per m.le. Br 9 „f the CUy of 

,2., .,uare ™lles. dra,ns ^^ — ^^^^^ J,„, 3 „ne north of the 
,Uen and flows west " ^o- - ^ ,,3 ,,,, ,„ the 3.4 

cuy of GranUevllle. ^^ ;7™;;^^, ,,,,, of about S2.5 feet 
„„es of the study area « t^" ^^^^ „, ,3.0 s,uare .Ues at 

p,, „,U. sand «iver w th a da nag ^^^^^^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^^ 

US »uth. drains the CUy ^''''\l ^^^^,„ ^,,,3 about 201 feet 
creek at the CUy of «--""";.;;"„ l.^^ge slope of 35.8 feet 

'" - ^-^ :""::f"H:rie"c e:;: t: ...n, of sranuevnu . 

rn^irCelorla. areas at selected locations, the 

Study area are Shown in Table 1. 



Urn 

i 




PTruRE 1 View of Horse Creek in the 

FlGUKt I. ... . ^4.,, nf r,r3niteville. 



vicinity of Granitevi 







Yoyfli 

.The Daughter Of William Gregg Recalls The Joys And Fears Of Her Childhood 



• "My lilth summer vas spent 
at Aiken boarding," Rosa 
Osrs (Gregg) Chaffee »Tote in 
her autobiographical sketch. 

"At that time my Father 
looked over the country search- 
ing for a suitable spot on H-hich 
to build a summer home. He 
found a lovely situation at that 
time called Sumimer Hill, but 
Mother soon named it Kalmia 
(the ixtanical name for moun- 
tain laurel) as there was much 
ol this beautiful flovcr around 
and near." 

K* ^ r' 

So William and Marina 
Gregg established their home, 
Kalmia, on what today is still 
known as Kalmia Hill. The 
year was 18-!6, and just over the 
hill from Kalmia lay Granite- 
ville, where Gregg was build- 
ing a textile manufacturing 
plant and a whole village 
around it. 

Today, little remains of Kal- 
mia — a few ancient trees, a 
hedge of ancient boxwoods 20 
fe«t high, some terracing along 
the s\crping hillside and the 
[oundatioru of an outbuilding. 
Approximately where the 
jregg mansion stood Is the 
undsome brick home of Dr. 
finley Kennedy, who acquired 
the site about 30 years ago. 

Rosa Gara grew up and, in 
1864, married a young Confed- 
erate soldier, Nathaniel G. B. 
Chatee. She wrote her memoirs 
.n 1327 at age 66 and she died 
iirce years later, at 80. 

Her autobiography was dis- 
^Dvered recently in the Gregg- 
jraniteviUe Library at the Uni- 
/ersity of South Carolina 
Mken. It gives an unrevealed 
side of Gregg family life and of 
a girl growing up in a wealthy 
Southern family in the antebel- 
lum era. 

It Ls reproduced here with the 
cooperation of the Gregg-Gran- 
Iteville Library: 

ROSA CUVR.A CIIAFEE 
July, 10:7 

I A.M PAST 86, so there is 
Tiuch in my long life to remem- 
xr, and very much that is 
'orgotten. 

The first occurrence that I 
tmember was when a little 
ivcr 3 years, my Father and 
Mother and three brothers 
»ent North. \\'helher we went 
)y trains or boats I have no rc- 
roUection, nor do I remember 
»hcre we first stopped, but re- 
member MiUord CI. where we 
«nt to visit some friends. 

One afternoon the older pco- 
jle went for a drive and left us 
:hildren with our nurse Char- 
olle, a;id a yowg Indy. One of 
Tiy brothers nusbehavcd, what 
le did I do not know, but the 
ady got a switch with which to 
correct him. Do not remember 
(she struck him, but I flew at 
ler like a tiger, scratching and 
lulling at her dress, and crying 



Aiken History 

BY DONALD M. LAV/ 
Associate Ediior 



out, "You shan't whip my 
brother." 

We were separated by the 
nurse. No doubt the lady was 
horrified at the temper of such 
a scrap of mortality, and 
thought me greatly spoiled, as 
no doubt I was. We had a pleas- 
ant walk aftcnvards, and be- 
came friends. 

The following year, 1815, my 
mind had considerably devel- 
oped, for I distinctly remember 
another trip North with Father, 
Mother and my devoted nurse, 
Maria SImkins. 

The boys were left in 
Charleston with the father and 
mother of our Bishop Ellison 
Capers. 

AT Til AT TIME there was no 
railroad In this state going 
. North. • • 

There was one running from 
Charleston, S.C, to Hamburg, 
opposite to Augusta, Ca., on 
Savannah River. 

We embarked In a little 
■ steamer called (the) Vander- 
bilt, which plied between 
Charleston, S.C. and Wilming- 
ton, N.C. I remember all about 
the Boat, but nothing more un- 
til we reached our destination 
Poughkcepsic, N.Y. I remem- 
ber how the house looked 
where we went to Board (or 
several weeks. It has three sto- 
ries, and was kept by a Mrs. 
Grant, a widow, who had two 
daughters, who immediately 
began to make a Pet of me. 
They were not grown up. but 
looked very big to little me. 

My sister Mary Bellinger 
was born here that summer, 
Sept. 1st, 1815. Dr. and Mrs. 
Bellinger of Charleston, S.C. 
went with us. That was proba- 
bly why Mother chose that City 
for a stopping place. My sister 
was named tor them. At first I 
was much pleased with the 
baby, but the novelty soon wore 
off, and I preferred to be with 
my (nilhful Maria or with the 
Grant girls. 

I CAN REMEMBER the dif- 
ferent walks Marin and I took. 
One place I loved to go to was 
to the laundress who lived at 
quite a distance across a 
common. 

My Mother told mc that oner 
I uciil up to Uio IhJrd slory 

alone to a Bedroom and locked 
myself in. There was conster- 
nation in the house when I was 
found to be missing. But In a 
little while Mother's keen cars 
heard a distant screaming. 
I was soon located, but. the 



door was locked and I did not 
know how to turn the key. 
Fearing that in my (right I 
might try to get out of a win- 
dow, which was scarcely likely, 
a fireman's ladder was sent 
for. However, here he came, 
Mother told me if I could get 
out the key to push it under the 
door which I did, was soon re- 
leased and the commotion 
ceased. All enjoyed Pough- 
kccpsie, but a parting time 
arrived. 

I remember nothing of the 
journey until we reached Wil- 
mington, Del., where we 
stopped to visit relatives of Fa- 
ther; James Webb and family 
(Quaker cousins.) 

Cousin Mary, then a young 
girl, very pretty and sweet, 
gave mc toys and much 

pleasure. . . . 

AFTER LEAVING WIL- 
MINGTON, DEL., my only rec- 
ollection was the gladness of 
getting home to sec my darkey 
friends and to rove around 
Mother's lovely flower garden 
which was my daily delight. 
With her help and that of the 
gardener I learned the nrimc of 
every plant in the garden. 

(Sec RECOLLECTIONS. 
Page 13) 




■^ i 



^ ^ 



£^^.iiilL(^ 



FATHER: A SuCcess-'ul fcuS-nesi-T-.j.-. .. .^ 

Marina Jones ol Ridge Spring. W4iiam Gregg then 
(ounded the r ■? Co ar." ^ ...---. 

GraniloviHe. H . , in a^ife il 

as a small child, but site later saw a mote mevui* i^se oi . 

her (other 




■n 






-^ 






RARE PHOTO:' 

shows rear vie a ■ 
sJruclurc. The house, whicn v. 
orchards, was tern down many 
shipped peaches lo New Ywk 
. Railroad. . 



by way ol int Soum Carolina 




GREGG DAUGHTERS: Rosa Clara Gregg, shown at led 
with younger sister Mary Bellinger Gregg, lived with her 
lamily in Charleston and later at Kalmia in Aiken. Portrait is 
the possession of her great-grandddaughter, Mrs. 
Talmadge (Charlotte Buchanan) LeGrand of Columbia. 



Recollections 



(Contlaued From Page 11) 

Sometimes strangers would 
stop, and ask if they could walk 
around, and look at the roses 
and other flowers. Ntother was 
always willing a.-.d it the gar- 
dener was too busy she would 
send me to pilot them around, 
much to their amusement and 
surprise that so small a child 
could tell the names of so many 
plants and flowers. 
. My fifth summer was spent 
at Aiken boarding. At that time 
my Father looked over the 
country searching for a suit- 
able spot on which to build a 
summer home. He found a 
lovely situation at that time 
called Summer HiU. but Moth- 
er soon named it Kalmia (the 
Botanical name tor Mountain 
Laurel) as there was much of 
. this beautiful flower around 
and near. Father set carpcn- 
, ters to work, and the next sum- 
. mer we moved Into our new 
summer home. Our winters 
'were spent In Charleston, S.C. 
■ Our home was at the Western 
" end of Boundary Street, after- 
wards call Calhoun. 

.'■" I BEGAN TO GO TO 
. SCHOOL the winter after I was 
, six. My first teacher was Miss 
. Griggs, a kind pleasant wom- 
■; an. My first little book had pic- 
, hires in.it. Mother had taught 
• me the alphabet.'! spelled (un-' 



til I learned better) just as the 
pictures looked to me. So when 
1 came to a hen I spelled it H-e- 
n — chicken, which caused 
quite a little amusement to 
some of the children who knew 
more than I did, but my kind 
teacher soon showed me the 
difference; and I became an 
apt scholar in that line. 

But being much annoyed by 
an older girl, Mother took me 
away, and put me at Miss Pcr- 
rj-'s where I became a remark- 
able speller for one so young. 
Stood head of a large class the 
whole winter. 

I wore a little silver medal as 
a reward of merit. But ne.it to 
me was a boy who spelled 
equally as well, who could not 
get above me, nor was he ever 
taken do'.ra. This boy after- 
wards became a physician, Dr. 
Grange Simons, highly thought 
of in Charleston. The honor of 
the medal was divided between 
us — he wearing it one week, I 
the other. We were two very 
proud little youngsters. 

NOT WISHING the boys to be 
idle all summer Father cm- 
ployed a young man from 
Charleston to teach them (Mr. 
John Wesley Miller). I too re- 
cited a little to him, but was not 
kept long. A colored girl, 
named Jane, daughter of our 
_ l.-iundrcss was my constant 
cbmp.n'nion'-^' we played 'with 




AN OLD LADY: Rosa Clara Gregg Chafes holds her infant great-granddaughter, 
Charlotte Buchanan, in a photo made in 1929, the year before Mrs. Chafes's death. At 
left is the baby's mother, Clara Hammond Buchanan, wife of distingushed 
newspaperman George Buchanan, later dean of the University of South Carolina School 
of Journalism; and at right is Mrs. Buchanan's mother, Mrs. Alfred Gumming Hammond 
(Charlotte Kinloch Chalce), who was Mrs. Chafee's daughter. The baby Charlotte 
Buchanan is now Mrs. Talmadge LeGrand of Columbia, v/ho made this photo available 
to the Aiken Standard. ' • . • 



dolls, and also roved the hills 
up and down for hours, often 
bringing wild flowers, tearing 
our clothes, and running the 
risk of being bitten by snakes, 
but there seemed to be few, and 
they harmless. 



The following winter when 
eight years old my sister and I 
were put to Mrs. Ilahnbaums 
school. I just remember that 
Mary did not go until the nc.Tt 
winter, when but little over 5 
years. Mrs. H. had a sister, a 
most amiable and lovable per- 
son. Miss Rebecca Badger. She 
taught work, knitting, crochet 
or sewing. I took crochet, and 
became quite expert. To me 
when out of school it became a 
delightful pastime, and at Wj I 
am still enjoying it and doing 
nice pieces of work. 

The children all loved Miss 
Hebccca, but stood in awe of 
her sister. We were not allowed 
to go into the work room unless 
our lessons were perfect. After 



two enjoyable winters we were 
put into another school, at the 
solicitation of friends. It was 
kept by Mrs. Basil Lanneau. 

BEFORE GOING to this 
school during the summer my 
Father took me every morning 
with him to GranitcviUe, and 
put me to school with Mrs. B.C. 
Hard. He -Mr. Hard -at that 
time was bookkeeper and trea- 
surer at the GranitcviUe Manu- 
facturing company. , . 

These two or three summers 
were the very happiest of my 
childhood. I loved the whole 
family, and they were devoted 
to mc. Sometimes Father 
would be in deep thought, and 
leaving to go home to late din- 
ner, three miles away, would 
forget me. Then there would be 
a great jollification among the 
children because I would be 
there all night and such a frolic 
we would have. Mr. Hard joir.-. 
ing us in ever/ game. Such tun 



we had. . ' 

At Graniteville I m.et Bella 
Montgomery, her father being 
superuitendent for the factory. 
We became devoted friends but 
she married just before I did 
and had a most unhappy life, 
until after the death of her 
drunken husband. 

ONE SAD THING in my 
child life was my great fear of 
Father. No one knew it except 
my plaNTTiate Jane. To me he 
seemed very austere, but I 
doubt ver>' much if he was, for 
I did not find it so Ln later 
years. One circumstance 
helped on this great fear. An 
uncle was visiting us in 
Charleston. I was suffering 
with tooth-ache. He said to Fa- 
tlicr if you will hold the chj'ld, I 
will pull Lhe tooth out, which to 
mv terror they proceeded to 
do. ■ , '. 

(Scc'RECOLLECnONS, ■'. 
Page 13) • ■ ■ ' 






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HECKMAN 

BINDERY INC, 

NOV 98 



B>.i.nd.To.|V....- M MANCHESTR 
INDIANA 46*;.' 

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